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Instructors of pre-service and in-service teachers can use the following resources to support the integration of the nature and process of science into existing science methods courses or professional development workshops.*

  • Modified conceptual framework
    Due to time constraints, most courses for pre-service and in-service teachers do not cover all of the concepts included at the undergraduate level of the Understanding Science conceptual framework. This list provides a "top twenty" subset of concepts that should be the focus of instruction at this level.

  • Learning goals for preservice teachers
    The concepts and skills described here are key for teachers who wish to effectively address the nature and process of science in their classrooms.

  • Misconceptions about teaching the nature and process of science
    We all know that students have many misconceptions about the nature and process of science itself, but misconceptions about teaching the nature and process of science are also rife. Instructors of preservice teachers should be aware of these common misconceptions.

  • Student misconceptions about the nature and process of science
    All learners, whether 7th graders or undergraduates about to embark on a teaching career, are likely to hold misconceptions about the nature and process of science that instruction can help reshape into more accurate conceptions.

  • Starting activities
    We have identified several introductory activities that can set the tone for the school year (or a methods course!) by presenting an accurate and engaging perspective on what science is really about. These activities involve students in aspects of science in a simple and exploratory fashion and are available for each grade level: K-2, 3-5, 6-8, 9-12, 13-16.

  • Research briefs
    This curated list of key journal articles (along with short summaries) from the education research literature illuminates what we know about how students learn the nature and process of science.

For more ideas about how to incorporate Understanding Science into your preservice or inservice teacher instruction, check out these first-hand reports from teacher educators.

* This list of resources was generated through an NSF-sponsored workshop (supplement to Grant No. EAR-0624436) held in Berkeley, CA in January 2012 and attended by 11 science educators who currently teach pre-service teachers, teacher educators, and/or in-service teachers.


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