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Identifying your learning goals for grades 13-16

At the end of the school year, there are certain conceptual understandings that we want our students to have. Achieving these learning goals lays the groundwork for more sophisticated understandings as students proceed through their learning experiences. Furthermore, developing instruction around particular learning goals can increase the effectiveness of instruction by helping instructors focus on what they really want students to understand. The Understanding Science Conceptual Framework is an effective tool for identifying a sequence of age-appropriate conceptual understandings (K-16) to guide your teaching. See the complete conceptual framework for all grade levels.

The Framework is divided into seven strands:
What is science | How science works | Hypotheses and theories | The social side of science | Science and society | What has science done for you lately | A scientific approach to life


What is science: concepts for 13-16
  1. Science is both a body of knowledge and the process for building that knowledge. (See lessons)
  2. Science aims to build increasingly broad and coherent explanations of the natural world. (See lessons)
    1. Science focuses on natural phenomena and processes. (See lessons)

  3. Science works only with testable ideas. (See lessons)
    1. Moral judgments, aesthetic judgments, decisions about applications of science, and conclusions about the supernatural are outside the realm of science. (See lessons)

  4. Scientists strive to test their ideas with evidence from the natural world; a hallmark of science is exposing ideas to testing. (See lessons)
  5. Scientific knowledge is open to question and revision as new ideas surface and new evidence is discovered. (See lessons)
    1. Scientific ideas cannot be absolutely proven. (See lessons)
    2. Because it has been tested, scientific knowledge is reliable. (See lessons)

  6. Science is ongoing; answering one scientific question frequently leads to additional questions to be investigated. (See lessons)

How science works: concepts for 13-16
  1. The real process of science is complex, iterative, and can take many different paths. (See lessons)
  2. The process of science involves observation, exploration, testing, communication, and application. (See lessons)
  3. Scientific observations can be made directly with our own senses or may be made indirectly through the use of tools. (See lessons)
  4. Scientists test their ideas (hypotheses and theories) by figuring out what expectations are generated by an idea and making observations to find out whether those expectations are borne out. (See lessons)
    1. Scientists can test ideas about events and processes long past, very distant, and not directly observable. (See lessons)
    2. Scientists test their ideas using multiple lines of evidence. (See lessons)
    3. All scientific tests involve making assumptions, but these assumptions can be independently tested, increasing our confidence in our test results. (See lessons)

  5. Scientists often try to generate multiple explanations for what they observe. (See lessons)
  6. Scientists use multiple research methods (experiments, observations, comparisons, and modeling) to collect evidence. (See lessons)
  7. Scientists look for patterns in their observations and data. (See lessons)
    1. Raw data must be analyzed and interpreted before we can tell whether a scientific idea is likely to be accurate or inaccurate. (See lessons)
    2. Analysis of data usually involves putting data into a more easily accessible format (visualization, tabulation, or quantification of qualitative data). (See lessons)

  8. Scientists try to be objective and work to identify and avoid bias. (See lessons)
  9. Different scientists may interpret the same data in different ways; data interpretation can be influenced by a scientist's assumptions, biases, and background. (See lessons)
  10. Researchers share their findings with the scientific community through scientific publications. (See lessons)
  11. Scientists aim for their studies to be replicable. (See lessons)
    1. When a study of a phenomenon cannot be replicated, it may suggest that our current understanding of the phenomenon or our methods of testing are insufficient.

Hypotheses and theories: concepts for 13-16
  1. Hypotheses are proposed explanations for a narrow set of phenomena. (See lessons)
    1. Hypotheses are usually inspired and informed by previous research and/or observations. They are not guesses. (See lessons)

  2. Theories are powerful explanations for a wide range of phenomena. (See lessons)
  3. Accepted scientific theories are not tenuous; they must survive rigorous testing and be supported by multiple lines of evidence to be accepted. (See lessons)

The social side of science: concepts for 13-16
  1. Science depends on communication within the scientific community. (See lessons)
  2. Scientists usually work collaboratively. (See lessons)
  3. Scientists scrutinize each other's work through peer review and other processes. (See lessons)
    1. Through a system of checks and balances (which includes peer review), the scientific community helps ensure science's accuracy and helps detect bias, fraud, and misconduct. (See lessons)

  4. The scientific community motivates researchers in their investigations by providing recognition and, sometimes, a sense of competition. (See lessons)
  5. Science relies on the accumulated knowledge of the scientific community to move forward. (See lessons)
  6. The scientific community is global and diverse. (See lessons)
    1. The diversity of the scientific community helps facilitate specialization and provides different points of view that invigorate problem solving and balance biases.
    2. Scientists are influenced by their personal experiences and cultures. (See lessons)

  7. Anyone can participate in science, but the pursuit of science as a career often requires extensive formal training. (See lessons)
  8. Scientists are creative. (See lessons)
  9. Scientific misconduct can occur when a scientist doesn't fairly evaluate other scientists' work, doesn't honestly report results, doesn't fairly assign credit, or doesn't work within the ethical guidelines of the community.

Science and society: concepts for 13-16
  1. Science is embedded in, and influenced by, the broader society. (See lessons)
    1. Societies may influence the course of science by directing funds towards some research topics and away from others.
    2. Scientific research is often focused on topics with the potential to help meet societal needs.

What has science done for you lately: concepts for 13-16
  1. Science builds knowledge about the world, but people decide how that knowledge should be used.
  2. Science contributes to many different sorts of new technologies.
    1. Advances in science often drive technological innovations, which may, in turn, contribute to new scientific discoveries. (See lessons)

  3. Scientific knowledge and research have led to many medical advances.
  4. Scientific knowledge helps us make decisions that affect our lives every day. (See lessons)
  5. Scientific knowledge informs public policies and regulations that promote our health, safety, and environmental stewardship. (See lessons)

A scientific approach to life: concepts for 13-16
  1. Problem-solving and decision-making benefit from a scientific approach. (See lessons)
  2. Authentic scientific controversy and debate within the community contribute to scientific progress by encouraging careful examination of the research.
  3. Controversies about the ethicality of particular scientific methods or about the applications of scientific ideas may occur within the broader society, but do not necessarily represent a rift in science.


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