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Found 21 resources at the 9-12 grade level for the concept: Scientific knowledge is open to question and revision as new ideas surface and new evidence is discovered. (P4, P6, NOS3)

imageXenosmilus
In this lesson, students play the roles of paleontologists on a dig. They "unearth" a few fossils at a time and attempt to reconstruct the animal the fossils represent.

Audience: 9-12

Source: UCMP

Resource type: classroom activity

imageDogs and turnips
In this lesson students attempt to assemble a meaningful sentence by successively turning over cards with words on them. The point is made that we change our ideas of what a story may be as we gather more information.

Audience: 9-12

Source: UCMP

Resource type: classroom activity

imageThe great fossil find
Students are taken on an imaginary fossil hunt and form hypotheses about the identity of the creature they discover. Students revise their hypotheses as new evidence is found.

Audience: 9-12

Source: ENSI

Resource type: classroom activity

imageNumber patterns
Students try to discover the relationship among six numbers. The objective of this activity is to engage students in a problem-solving situation in which they practice aspects of the process of science.

Audience: 9-12

Source: UCMP

Resource type: classroom activity

imageCrime scene: The case of the missing computer chip
In this classroom activity, teams of students use clues to adjust working hypotheses about an unsolved crime. The nature and process of science are recognized through discussion of the crime solution metaphor.

Audience: 9-12

Source: ENSI

Resource type: classroom activity

imageMystery tubes
Students are asked to determine what the interior construction of the mystery tube looks like. Working in groups, students pose explanations for what they are observing and test their ideas.

Audience: 9-12

Source: UCMP

Resource type: classroom activity

imagePoking around
Students are introduced to the process of scientific inquiry as they develop an approach to determine the shape and size of an unseen object.

Audience: 9-12

Source: Stefanski, Mark

Resource type: classroom activity

imageMystery boxes: Uncertainty and collaboration
Students manipulate sealed "mystery" boxes to determine the inner structure of the boxes. The nature and sources of uncertainty inherent in the process of problem-solving are experienced, but reduced by collaboration.

Audience: 9-12

Source: ENSI

Resource type: classroom activity

imageThe checks lab
Students construct plausible scenarios to explain a series of canceled bank checks. They revise their original hypotheses with new evidence and learn how human values and biases influence observation and interpretation.

Audience: 9-12

Source: ENSI

Resource type: classroom activity

imageNewton's 2nd law: Inquiry approach
Students act as colleagues of Isaac Newton. Students focus on how to design a procedure to test Newton's hypothesis and then communicate that idea to others. The emphasis is on the process rather than the actual results.

Audience: 9-12

Source: Tung, Cecilia

Resource type: lab activity

imageDesigning your very own science experiment
Students design and carry out an experiment using pill bugs (isopods). Other organisms could be used in place of the pill bugs. Students reflect on the process used by charting their pathway on the Science Flowchart.

Audience: 9-12

Source: Stefanski, Mark

Resource type: lab activity

imageThe Hobbit: When scientists disagree about the evidence
This classroom activity, adapted from an exercise on PBS's NOVA website, provides an excellent example of an active debate within the scientific community regarding a relatively recent human fossil find, Homo floresiensis.

Audience: 9-12

Source: Visionlearning

Resource type: classroom activity

imageRutherford's enlarged: A content embedded NOS activity
Students reason about a model of Ernst Rutherford's famous experiment supporting the idea of the atomic nucleus. They differentiate between observation and inference and see the role of creativity in the process of science.

Audience: 9-12

Source: Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad

Resource type: lab activity

imageTime for mitosis
Drs. Lederman compare two methods of teaching about mitosis, emphasizing how to enhance a lesson by incorporating the nature of science.

Audience: 9-12

Source: Lederman, Norman and Judith

Resource type: article

imageThe story behind the science
Thirty stories spanning five disciplines help students explore key science concepts through the eyes of the scientists who were involved, while emphasizing the nature and process of science.

Audience: 9-12

Source: Iowa State University

Resource type: article

imageIntroducing the Understanding Science flowchart
Students participate in a quick activity and discuss whether they were doing science. They then read a story about Walter Alvarez, discuss the process of science, and trace his scientific journey using the Science Flowchart.

Audience: 9-12

Source: UCMP

Resource type: classroom activity

imageInvestigating a Deep Sea Mystery
In this lab activity, students examine authentic morphological and phylogenetic data of three fish families and then pose and test alternative hypotheses about the fishes' classification.

Audience: 9-12

Source: ETOL

Resource type: lab activity

imageClipbirds
In this activity, students simulate bird feeding with "beaks" that differ in size. The proportion of big-, medium-, and small-beaked birds changes in response to available types of food. This is a lesson on evolution, but suggestions on how to incorporate the nature and process of science are included.

Audience: 9-12

Source: UCMP

Resource type: classroom activity

imageCells within cells: An extraordinary claim with extraordinary evidence
This Science in Action article on endosymbiosis explores the career of microbiologist, Lynn Margulis and how an unlikely idea overcame strong resistance within the scientific community and finally came to be an accepted part of evolutionary theory.

Audience: 9-12

Source: UCMP

Resource type: article

imageAge dating star clusters
Students explore how classification and graphing are used by astronomers to determine the age of star clusters. They will measure the color and brightness of stars, as proxies for temperature and luminosity

Audience: 9-12

Source: Whitfield, Lisé

Resource type: lab activity

imageHow science works
This video uses the Understanding Science flowchart to describe how a team of scientists investigates climate change throughout Earth's history with ocean sediment cores.

Audience: 9-12

Source: OceanLeadership

Resource type: video

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