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Found 13 resources at the 9-12 grade level for the concept: Scientists can test ideas about events and processes long past, very distant, and not directly observable.

imageXenosmilus
In this lesson, students play the roles of paleontologists on a dig. They "unearth" a few fossils at a time and attempt to reconstruct the animal the fossils represent.

Audience: 9-12

Source: UCMP

Resource type: classroom activity

imageThe great fossil find
Students are taken on an imaginary fossil hunt and form hypotheses about the identity of the creature they discover. Students revise their hypotheses as new evidence is found.

Audience: 9-12

Source: ENSI

Resource type: classroom activity

imageCrime scene: The case of the missing computer chip
In this classroom activity, teams of students use clues to adjust working hypotheses about an unsolved crime. The nature and process of science are recognized through discussion of the crime solution metaphor.

Audience: 9-12

Source: ENSI

Resource type: classroom activity

imagePoking around
Students are introduced to the process of scientific inquiry as they develop an approach to determine the shape and size of an unseen object.

Audience: 9-12

Source: Stefanski, Mark

Resource type: classroom activity

imageMystery boxes: Uncertainty and collaboration
Students manipulate sealed "mystery" boxes to determine the inner structure of the boxes. The nature and sources of uncertainty inherent in the process of problem-solving are experienced, but reduced by collaboration.

Audience: 9-12

Source: ENSI

Resource type: classroom activity

imageThe checks lab
Students construct plausible scenarios to explain a series of canceled bank checks. They revise their original hypotheses with new evidence and learn how human values and biases influence observation and interpretation.

Audience: 9-12

Source: ENSI

Resource type: classroom activity

imageThe Hobbit: When scientists disagree about the evidence
This classroom activity, adapted from an exercise on PBS's NOVA website, provides an excellent example of an active debate within the scientific community regarding a relatively recent human fossil find, Homo floresiensis.

Audience: 9-12

Source: Visionlearning

Resource type: classroom activity

imageRutherford's enlarged: A content embedded NOS activity
Students reason about a model of Ernst Rutherford's famous experiment supporting the idea of the atomic nucleus. They differentiate between observation and inference and see the role of creativity in the process of science.

Audience: 9-12

Source: Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad

Resource type: lab activity

imageGalaxy classification
This is a modified version of Galactic Inquiry in which students learn about galaxy classification while also experiencing a simple simulation of peer review and community analysis.

Audience: 9-12

Source: Whitfield, Lisé

Resource type: lab activity

imageIntroducing the Understanding Science flowchart
Students participate in a quick activity and discuss whether they were doing science. They then read a story about Walter Alvarez, discuss the process of science, and trace his scientific journey using the Science Flowchart.

Audience: 9-12

Source: UCMP

Resource type: classroom activity

imageAnolis Lizards
Students "travel" to the Greater Antilles to figure out how the Anolis lizards might have evolved there. Students make observations, ask questions, share data, form hypotheses, generate expectations, get more data, interpret them, and test their ideas.

Audience: 9-12

Source: Collins, Jennifer

Resource type: lab activity

imageCells within cells: An extraordinary claim with extraordinary evidence
This Science in Action article on endosymbiosis explores the career of microbiologist, Lynn Margulis and how an unlikely idea overcame strong resistance within the scientific community and finally came to be an accepted part of evolutionary theory.

Audience: 9-12

Source: UCMP

Resource type: article

imageAge dating star clusters
Students explore how classification and graphing are used by astronomers to determine the age of star clusters. They will measure the color and brightness of stars, as proxies for temperature and luminosity

Audience: 9-12

Source: Whitfield, Lisé

Resource type: lab activity

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